Aurangzeb Poem by Vishal Sharma.a king needs kindness in his blood being generous ... Dew Drops On Rose Petals KAVIN CHARALAN. But Shantidas was dear to Shahjahan. ANJANDEV ROY. He built Alamgiri mosque on top of Beni Madhav temple. Although none of Shivaji’s enemies is spared, Aurangzeb is the subject of numerous scathingly satirical poems, as in verse 87 below when the emperor faints at the thought of doing battle with Shivaji. Shiva Bhushan. It is surprising that the article would fault contemporary India for the same. An exposition of the faith is to be laid before an apostate; who, if he repent not within three days is put to death. He stormed into the Kedāra Temple and slashed with his sword at the image of the bull Nandin, kneeling before the doorway to the sanctum. An 1850 sketch of Somnath temple. After 1670 he moved from Varanasi to Maharashtra and visited Chatrapati Shivaji Maharaj's darbaar. The spirit of the book, with its crisp prose and controlled polemics, hits out at the easy generalisations of social media. Autoplay Next Video. Richard Eaton has argued that this order was confined to benares. 2. After 1670 he moved from Varanasi to Maharashtra and visited Chatrapati Shivaji Maharaj's darbaar. When they tried to enter the temple, they were pushed back by some strong force and could not enter. These were completely aligned with his idea of a true Muslim. An undated order mentions the destruction of every temple built in the last 12 years and not repair any old temple. One may wonder as to how did Aurangzeb’s “Hindi” poems find their way into a book published into a book first published in the 19th century and nowhere earlier! Now this theory is highly flimsy as reading Khutba in the name of the Emperor was a Friday ritual in the mosques. Aurangzeb merely acted in line with the hallowed Mughal tradition of in-fighting, where brother didn’t hesitate killing brother in battles of succession, to come to power. And ironically, at the same time, uses unsubstantiated rhetoric to claim that Aurangzeb was not a Tyrant and a Bigot that his actions, recorded in documents from the past, clearly reveal him to be. The temples at Gayaspur near Bhilsa and the temple of Khaundai Rao in Gujarat were also destroyed on his orders. Aurangzeb, The man and his myth(2016), 2. Swami Vivekananda on Shivaji quoting Bhushan kavi. If a slave apostatizes, he cannot be freed until he returns to Islam. Any monarch, who wanted to ensure the continuance of his reign, was unlikely to have acted differently under the circumstances. The historian Richard Eaton has tried to put up a theory that Hindu temples were places of revolt while as Mosques were above politics. The last of the so-called ‘Grand Mughals,’ Aurungzeb, tried to put back the clock, and in this attempt stopped it and broke it up. Therefore, going by the scholarship displayed by Manager Pandey’s and subsequently the author, the Mughal kings also wrote in Bengali! Sketch by James Fergusson, Table: A list of demolition and destruction of Temples carried out by Aurangzeb. 10 A Musalman slave, purchased by an infidel, becomes free after entering an infidel territory. In 1669, he issued orders for general demolition of all Temples, including the holiest ones such as Vishvanath in Varanasi, Somanath in Prabhasa and Keshav Rai in Mathura. In spite of grounding her narrative in historical facts. His actions were in accordance with what he imagined to be that of an effective and equitable ruler’s. As soon as he put his sword on Lord Shiva’s leg, he heard the sound of bees and flow of milk from his leg and decided not to damage the idol. The slave of an infidel, upon becoming Musalman, acquires the right to freedom. The contemporary Pranami sects viewed Aurangzeb as a bigot who prosecuted Hindus, Look at the miracle of my Idol House O shaikh, That when it was ruined it became house of God. As a result, there is no major religious sanctuary in all Banāras that pre-dates the time of Aurangzeb in the seventeenth century. This book was written three decades before colonialism found its way to Kashmir. He remained a truly Machiavellian ruler in the classic sense of the term, drawing on The Prince, a treatise by the Italian diplomat Niccolò Machiavelli who advised rulers to imbibe cunning in their personal conduct and art of statecraft. All that the book does, is reinterpret existing sources in a contrarian manner to fit the theory or narrative where Aurangzeb is expected to be remembered as a mango loving, cap selling devout Muslim instead of the perpetrator of a genocide of Indians! I can show you the firmân [official order]! The Chief Kazi of Delhi refused to announce Aurangzeb’s coronation saying that it was illegal as his father was alive. How a person from UP could praise Shivaji as the uplifter of Hindus in the absence of any identity is beyond one’s imagination? But the Jains did not take back the temple as it had already been desecrated. According to Kedara Temple Sthal Purana, Aurangzeb’s troops approached the vicinity of the Kedāra Temple in Benares and were met by a Muslim holy man who warned them not to touch Kedāra. There is a legend that when his soldiers wanted to destroy the Gaurishankar temple, they attacked the Shiva Linga with a spear. It is to be noted that everyone had to pay Jaziya with the added humiliation of having to kneel to the Kazi while paying the same. Their houses were plundered, wealth destroyed, their heads shaven, urinated upon, publicly paraded, jeered upon, beaten with shoes and finally sent to death [3]. Kavi Bhushan came from Uttar Bharat and met Shivaji Maharaj at Rajgad. The fact is that Aurangzeb himself cited Islamic precedents for iconoclasm and sincerely believed that it was his duty as a pious Muslim to destroy idols. These remarks are based on the book (Aurangzeb: The Man and the Myth, 2017 by Audrey Truschke) which the article praises. All had been well in Banaras, until the Emperor Aurangzeb had destroyed the harmony between the communities by demolishing a temple; but the Emperor was so powerful that the Hindus had ‘necessarily submitted with patience’. When Shahjahan came to know about, he handed the temple back to Shantidas Zhaveri. In Hyderabad, Aurangzeb is notorious for converting Shia Royal Ashurkhana (chamber for Shia prayers and ritual) into a garage. How many Temples were destroyed but unattested in epigraphy and historical records? Silhouette clicked at Fort Panhala, Kolhapur. His work is mostly historical. This clearly shows that Aurangzeb’s bigotry was looked down upon even by those people deeply connected to Indo Persianate world following sufi traditions. An icon used to represent a menu that can be toggled by interacting with this icon. Who are the enemies? He also stopped public worship at the Hindu temple of Dwaraka. Although he diminished the presence of Sanskrit scholars at the Mughal court, he also wanted Brahmins to pray for the safety and continuation of the empire. Looking at his contemporaries, we find that he did not even show the same characteristics as Shivaji. Even if we were to ignore the writing of a native such as Kavi Bhushan, we have Aurangzeb’s biographers, who were not Shiv Sainiks, expressing admiration for Shivaji. This makes us wonder if those who have written posts on the book have read the book to find out if this mythification of Aurangzeb, under the ironical guise of debunking the myths related to the man, is fact or fiction. Why should a piece on Medieval History include a comment on a political organisation? For reading convenience, the original article has been kept in. State religion and state politics were inseparable in Muslim rule. If Adolf Hitler is looked down upon with contempt and rightly so, why would the author want to excuse Aurangzeb? 30,786, 9. He brought rough boring history into real life, with the help of his brilliant literature. He replaced the Persian Ilahi year with the Islamic Hijra year. This order was issued to the governor of Orissa. These poems did not exist in any document before 1842 and were just oral folk poems collected by a singer, and attributed to Aurangzeb, almost 200 years later. We have already established that Aurangzeb was a reviled figure. A female slave or free woman who apostatizes is not to be killed, but she must be daily beaten with severity until she return to the faith. Had Aurangzeb not secured the kingdom for himself by such violent means, he’d have lost face among his contemporaries, and most probably his life in the hands of one of his brothers. (Consider the Bharatiya Janata Party’s stance on beef, for instance, which seems to keep changing according to populist demands in different parts of the country.). Aurangzeb levied discriminotory taxes including Jaziya taxes on non-muslims. This is not all! But few figures have elicited as much contempt from a section of the public as well as the political class as the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb, Yes, few figures have elicited as much contempt as has Aurangzeb. He discontinued the Hindu practices of Jharokha Darshan , Tula Dan. As an example, we can talk about an incident that happened right after the death of Aurangzeb. He had succeeded in demolishing a few temples before being overpowered by them. Aurangzeb’s actions were not merely in accordance with what he imagined to be that of an effective and equitable ruler’s. Similarly, K N sane in Varshik Itibritta (saka year 1838) records that the attack by Aurangzeb on Narsinghpur was foiled by snakes and scorpions. Inspired by Chhatrapati Shivaji's ideals he travelled to Maharashtra and sought guidance from him. When Aurangzeb came to know about it, he immediately issued orders for the demolition of the place. A good example of how and why he patronised Brahmins can be gleaned from the episode of Jwalamukhi. Let us examine how a ‘section of the public’ perceived Aurangzeb in the pre- colonial period. The Hindus suffered most under Aurangzeb. What exactly did the ruling government do to merit an uproar, one wonders! This pillar once stood in a Hindu temple complex, but in the time of Aurangzeb the temple was destroyed and the site became a Muslim tomb site. His biographer Khafi Khan wrote this some time after Aurangzeb’s reign had ended. This step, taken by him out of desperation, for, he was not able to make gains on his own, was resented by orthodox Muslims who cursed him to hell. Pran Nath, the founder of the sect, stayed in Delhi for sixteen months to meet Aurangzeb. 83 (2002), PP. Explain to me about when Awrangzîb attacked the Deccani sultanates, when he ordered the Shîcî shrines to be destroyed! This article refers to a book by Manager Pandey in which it is claimed that Aurangzeb invoked the Trinity!Surprisingly, her book does not include it at all! But the modern period of history is not very different in this respect. Love expressing myself through words.... Intrigued by an online article entitled ‘, Why Aurangzeb’s Reputation As A Tyrant And Bigot Doesn’t Stand The Test Of History, We decided to undertake a thorough examination of the article and share our observation, for, unless responded to, the plethora of such research, considered as fringe half a century ago, might end up becoming mainstream and that would be a grave injustice to India – the land and its people. Let us look at all that he prohibited or put an end to, in addition to the lives of countless non-muslims, that is! Truschke, Audrey. The Hindus were too diverse anyway (a composite of the Brahmins, Marathas, Rajputs and other castes) to bear down on him with a united hostility. The trade tax for Muslims was 2.5% as against  5% for Hindus. He gave shape to future generations of Indians. Aurangzeb took it to glorious heights by imprisoning his father! This attribution of Aurangzeb’s portrayal in popular memory, as something misrepresented by the Hindutva brigade, is unsubstantiated. bud waba’ az Mughal — “the cholera came from the Mughals[7].”, A census of Bijapur taken on behalf of Aurangzeb showed that the city had lost over half of its former population in the few years after his conquest. And it is in complete contrast with how Shivaji treated his subjects. The temples that survived, either fully or partially, were considered to have had miraculous powers, for, surviving Aurangzeb was no less than a miracle. When a large crowd rioted in protests the jizya, he sent in the troops—more precisely, the elephants—to trample them. The very fact that a mosque could not be touched even when there was an open political rebellion within the same, against the imperial regime, shows that the theory of political iconoclasm hold no merit. He mainly wrote in Brajbhasha interspersed with words from Sanskrit, Arabic and Persian languages. Shantidas Zhaveri was a rich Jain merchant and a close associate of Mughals. As Truschke says in the Preface, the idea for the book, fittingly, came to her in an exchange on Twitter, a minefield for peddling divisive political agenda by interested groups and individuals. Kavi Bhushan was Chhatrapati Shivaji's court poet and he has written this "Shivabavani" which contains poems in Alankarit Braj language in Veer Rasa.The translation of this book is done by Pandit Kaviratna Hari Shankar Sharma There are other temple traditions which attest to the iconoclasm of Aurangzeb. Examples are the Jami Masjid at Gwalior and Pattar ki Masjid at Patna. Even his son Prince Akbar fares better than him who is supposed to have written to his father. Jiziya is unarguably one of the most humiliating acts against the human spirit. Citizen of the free world;believe in living and letting live, for, to each his own! Does Doniger’s statement also amount to “misrepresentation by Hindutva brigade”? And this is not all, for, epigraphical records also reveal instances of mosques built on temples during his . Can we expect Aurangzeb to have acted at least like the earlier Mughal emperors or would that also amount to, what the article claims to be, a grave historical error? He has a Portuguese convert beheaded when he reverted to his original faith! He first met Shivaji when the latter visited Agra to meet the emperor Aurangzeb; thereafter, Bhushan became a supporter of Shivaji. It is a result of authentic findings from contemporary and later primary sources. This makes us question the scholarly integrity of someone who always harps on contemporary sources but ignores such a huge gap only as it seems to suit a specific theory. 1. Common sense and basic humanity suggests that killing 4.6 Mn people is Macabre and not Machiavellian. Whether we believe the legends etched into the Stahal Puranas of these temples, these instances do indicate that Aurangzeb’s iconoclasm led to huge destruction and resettlement of Hindu places of worship. 4. … His understanding of justice was never meant to live up to postmodern notions of human rights. However, the order was later modified and the temple converted into a mosque. Although both versions are superb, I still urge people to get hold of the version read by Shri. Braj folk songs and poems include Chhaap Tilak Sab Chheeni by Amir Khusrau, and the devotional song Main … The mention of Kavi Bhushan invokes in the Marathi souls the spirit of the poem “Indra jimi Jrambha par” made immortal by Pt. He slaughtered a cow inside its premises and converted it into mosque. Shah Dehlavi clearly saw Aurangzeb as a Sunni puritan who destroyed Shia places of worship. Here we examine the effect of Aurangzeb’s temple demolition on Hindu psyche through the reaction of Hindus to his spree of iconoclastic measures. the imposition of the tax was done, “with a view to suppress the infidels, and make clear the distinction between the dar ul-harb en de muti‘ ul-Islam,” that is between the rebellious areas and the areas that were muti‘, obedient or submissive, to Islam. How a person from UP could praise Shivaji as the uplifter of Hindus in the absence of any identity is beyond one’s imagination? He never lost his appetite for satirical verse though, letting his court poets compose lines that dared to lampoon him. And in order to balance out the monstrosity of this unfair, unjust act, the author tries to create an impression that Aurangzeb also elevated Hindu officials to positions of eminence in his court. Special thanks to Padmashree Rao and Anil Nalawade for the calligraphy. There are peculiarly contemporary resonances with his reign. We found that Manager Pandey committed a huge blunder by attributing poems written by court poets to Mughal emperor. The facts put forth by us clearly emphasise that the aura of Aurangzeb is not something concocted by social media trolls and right wing politicians. Such a prediction would not likely have been made about a loved and admired king. Childrens Stories; Childrens Poems; Panchtantra Stories; Submit Your Work; Blog; Video Gallery; About Bharat-Darshan; About New … As against this, there is no recorded evidence of a Hindu parallel for Khutba reading in a temple. Her undergraduate advisor Wendy Doniger , who she holds in high regard, is renowned as one of the greatest critics of Hindutva. It is amusing that the author would blame the public and political class for showing contempt for someone who has been found to be responsible for the genocide of 4.6 Mn Indians according to a Pew research report based on Manucci’s account of Aurangzeb’s reign Audrey answers to this charge by saying that though Manucci remains a useful source, he should be read critically and with caution. Aurangzeb’s soldiers destroyed the Devipatan temple in Gonda(UP) and slew the priests therein, Alamgiri Mosque built by Aurangzeb after destroying Hanumangarhi temple of Ayodhya, Given the long list, it is no wonder that in her book Audrey talks of “few dozen temples“ destroyed by Aurangzeb even as the Huffington post author stays stuck on “no more than a dozen”. In 1671, a Muslim officer sent to demolish temples around Ujjain was killed by Rajputs along with his 121 men. Aurangzeb was reigning in 1676, his name has NOT been mentioned as the ruling king. Pinault, D Horse of Karbala: Muslim Devotional Life in India(2016) PP.16, 5. It is also said that he ordered the demolition of a Saiva temple which he saw while passing through Udaipur in Bundelkhand (about 1681). The Sufi Bahri wrote in his own account how the Mughals officers inspected and persecuted him on the allegations of heterodoxy.[8]. At 88, as he lay dying, he was consumed by a longing for mangoes, she writes — a detail that stands out with an overwhelming sense of pathos and makes this re-telling of the emperor’s life richly rewarding. You seem to be using an unsupported browser.Please update to get the most out of Flickr. a king killed his own three brothers … Kavi Bhushan was an Indian poet of the seventeenth century and was resided in Varanasi. An inscription from Ranganatha Swamy temple at Nirthadi states that the temple was rebuilt in 1698 by Baramappa Nayaka after its destruction by Aurangzeb in 1696. No theory of political iconoclasm can explain this fact. – Shahid Nadeem, Pakistani Playwright, Even Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the father of Pakistan, observed that, Aurangzeb presided over a conquest state where Hindus had to submit to his rule most unwillingly[10]. This was not his own army, these were not rebels! We agree that his understanding of justice is not expected to live up to the postmodern notions of human rights. Chhatrasal raised the banner of revolt against the Mughals in Bundelkhand at the age of 22, with an army of 5 horsemen and 25 swordsmen, in 1671. The non-violent Jain merchants of Gujarat were never known to foment violent political rebellions anyway. Bhusan had occasion to meet Chatrapati Shivaji Maharaj when he visited Agra to meet Aurangzeb; thereafter, Bhusan became a supporter of Chatrapati Shivaji Maharaj. It is likely that the copy or source available to Nagendranath Basu was interpolated or corrupted with regional poems. Mosque elements (dome and minarets) piled clumsily on top of the ancient temple by Aurangzeb’s forces, Mosque built by Aurangzeb on top of Gobind Dev temple, Vrindavan. 1/11/06/opinion/06atrocities_timeline.html, Ignoring the corroboration by Dutch records, she. Aurangzeb asked the voice to prove its truthfulness, which resulted in lights all around with the appearance of the form of the lord. He wrote about 750 poems called 'Chanda' on Shivaji Maharaj in 'Braj' language. When Aurangzeb invaded Orissa, he demolished all other Temples but left Puri Jagannath intact because he thought it was a source of great revenue for Mughals. Kavi Bhushan was an Indian poet of the 17th century. Nanjunda Rao (a famous doctor … The article finds no substantiation for Dr Kalam’s goodness despite his personal and professional conduct being well recorded and not so far back in the past. Bhusan was originally from northern India, and resided in Varanasi. He dismissed Hindu astrologers and replaced them with Muslim astrologers. He constructed a lofty mosque on the site of the temple using the stones from the temple structure. Bhima Devi temple complex was destroyed by Aurangzeb’s foster brother who built Mughal         gardens in their stead in 1666 CE at Pinjore, A newswriter of Ranathambore reported the destruction of a temple in the pargana of Bhagwant Garh in the state of Jaipur. His experience in theatre proved beneficial, when various of … Beautiful Rose! And the order for general demolition of temples in 1669 clearly bears it out. He had a dream of uniting the kingdoms of India into Akhanda Bharat ” – Swami Vivekananda Swami Vivekananda on Shivaji The below incident between Swami Vivekananda & Dr. M.C. Kavi Bhushan, who was not a Maratha, mentions how Shivaji uplifted the enslaved Hindus. All the sources cited in the book have been known for years. 211-214, 10.Muslim Zion: Pakistan as a Political Idea By Faisal Devji PP.96, http://www.dimplehere.com/aurangzeb-iconoclasm-hinduphobia-islamism/. When Bahadur Shah proposed some changes in the Khutba, people suspected that he had modified the prayers because he was sympathetic to Shias. To impose on him the standards of the modern world is to thus make a grave historical error. This theory of political iconoclasm is unable to explain that if desecration and destruction of Hindu Temples was simply driven by politics, how is it that the mosques in the opponents’ lands escaped similar treatment. In no way does the narrative, being created through the book, seem to be grounded in historical facts! We simply will never know. In his case, he drove away one of his brothers from the empire, killed the other two, and kept his aged father, Shah Jahan, in house arrest. When demolishing Hindu Idol temples, Aurangzeb quoted. Kavi Bhushan, a Bundela poet from North India was an admirer of Shivaji and considered him to be the uplifter of suppressed Hindus. He also demolished Krittivasa and Bindu Madhava temples, raised mosques in their stead. Shivaji's father Shahaji Bhonsle was a Maratha general who served the … The book available to us is the one republished by Nagendranath Basu, a Bengali author, in three editions from 1914 to 1916. Similarly, the eleven Hindi poems attributed to Aurangzeb have actually been written by a person who seems to be a court poet . Reviews There are no reviews yet. Aurangzeb was not a court poet to express happiness on alleviation of poverty by a patron. He even donated to the Dargah of Muslim Sufi of Baba Yakut. In 2004, a biography of Shivaji by James Laine was banned in Maharashtra because it had dared to raise questions deemed unseemly by his fans. All the articles and posts being churned to market this book seem to be targeted at putting out an incorrect narrative through which revulsion for Aurangzeb’s conduct in the past is wrongly meant to be interpreted as revulsion for people of his own faith in the present. But he finally had to capitulate on the plea that destruction of mosques would incur him wrath. It is, therefore, a travesty to ascribe the poems in Manager Pandey’s book to Aurangzeb! When read in the context of Mughal history, much of the aura of a “cartoon bigot” that social media trolls and right-wing politicians have imposed on Aurangzeb seems to fade away, leaving behind the impression of a king who was as human and fallible as any other. In 2015, a Shiv Sena MP abused an officer on duty on camera by calling him “Aurangzeb ki aulad” (a descendant of Aurangzeb), after he razed some temples during a demolition drive sanctioned by the district collector in Aurangabad, based on high court orders. This is akin to one blaming an owner who defends his house against thieves. Historian Audrey Truschke took it upon herself to write a biography of Aurangzeb for the common reader to disabuse them of the many misconceptions around the Mughal king. If such examples are used by scholars to show that Aurangzeb was tolerant and secular, it is extremely unfair and dishonest. (Quran 17.81). A snapshot comparing the two is given below. He too could not enter the temple and he heard voices which said, “If you want to enter this temple, make your heart stronger(Karo-man-ghat)”. Chatrashaal Dashak. Truschke also brings to life a mythical Aurangzeb who invokes Brahma, Vishnu and Mahesh! This episode again elucidates how Hindus of the pre-colonial and early colonial age viewed Aurangzeb. His Majesty (Aurangzeb) personally teaches the sacred kalima to many infidels with success. Aurangzeb, who took on the title of Alamgir (“the seizer of the world”), was no exception. Shivaji did not discriminate. He sought pardon and the Kind hearted Mataji excused him from her anger. All we know is that only a few Temples have survived Aurangzeb’s reign and most of north India was deprived of large Temples. This itself makes for an interesting case, for, according to Audrey, there was no Hindu identity in pre-colonial age. At the auspicious time and virtuous grace recounting Brahman, Vishnu,  Mahesh, Aurangzeb happily sat on his glorious throne. While he did destroy temples during his reign, the number was probably no more than a dozen. None of these individuals would qualify to be a part of the Hindutva brigade. In his second year he discontinued the celebration of Nauroz as it was a pagan or heretic festival. The book is devoid of complete historical evidence and tries to obfuscate facts. Mahakabi Bhushan Krut "Shivabavani". Truschke brings to life Aurangzeb the emperor in all his flaws and splendour. After 1670 he moved from Varanasi to Maharashtra and visited Chatrapati Shivaji Maharaj's darbaar. These are also his accomplishments which don’t seem to find mention. This claim does not hold true in the light of contemporary testimonies. “has the truth not come, has the falsehood not vanished”? In the end, he went to the idol of Lord Shiv-Shakti. But the story doesn’t end here! The allowable length of beard was fixed at 4 fingers. Thus, we cannot be certain about how much is Nagendranath Basu’s republication true to Krishnanand Vyasa’s original book. Upon hearing of this incident, Aurangzeb himself came down to destroy this temple. Fountains of blood appeared from the Shiva Linga, and the soldiers ran away, terrified. Captured slaves, if kafirs, could not be freed.6 To be kafir is a disqualification (aib) both in ghulam (male slave) and bandi (female slave). Sheikh Yahyat Chisti, a Sufi of Ahmedabad refused to capitulate and he was troubled by imperial agents. Thematically. In 1679, he reimposed the jizya on all castes (even the Brahmins, who were usually exempt) and the tax on Hindu pilgrims that Akbar had lifted. There is not a single new source that has been used in the book. Kavi (Sanskrit: कवि) is a term for poet or poem in some Indian languages.. Kavi or KAVI may refer to: . At a little over 100 pages, without the paraphernalia of footnotes, it is as accessible as a complex historical narrative can get, without losing its essential core of erudition. The whole theory of political iconoclasm falls flat when one considers the case of Shantidas Zhaveri. Here the article is forced to mention Jizya as no amount of whitewashing can do away this clear manifestation of inequitable conduct. Dr Konrad Elst, a historian and scholar of repute, has. When Aurangzeb ordered demolition of Laxmi Narayan temple of Chamba in 1678, Raja Chattra Singh, instead, gilded its pinnacles. It is believed that the original linga of Varanasi was secretly smuggled to the Temple of Guptakashi in Uttarakhand. At this juncture, we would simply like to submit that many contemporary subjects wrote favourably of Stalin and Hitler, too! Yes, Shiv Sena and other groups admire Shivaji, the nemesis of Aurangzeb. According to the 17th century Bitak Sahitya composed by Pranamis, Aurangzeb was a typical bigot who tortured Hindus, slaughtered cows and destroyed temples. This leaves a gap of almost two centuries between Aurangzeb and the poems allegedly written by him. Chhatrasal was 12 when his father Champat Rai of Mahoba was killed by the Mughals. Similarly, Tirupati was spared. His morals have been influenced by Mahatma Gandhi. This displeased the Sharif of Mecca so much that he refused to accept his gift. Case, for, according to a single personal/religious identity person who seems have! Hindu slaves this law code to practice when he ordered the Shîcî shrines to grounded! 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